Why I Love Counter-Strike/How to Play Counter-Strike

Today I like to talk about an integral part of my computer/technology career. Unexpectedly, it is my skill on the game called Counter-Strike. I would like to impart to my readers my knowledge which helped me to be regarded as sort of an “expert” on the field of the said game. More than anything, I want to teach you how be the best on it. Also, I would like to discuss the significance it has in my life and the potential it has to touch others’ lives too.

I can’t imagine life without Counter-Strike (specifically the version 1.3 one). Needless to say, you can tell that I am nostalgic about it. I heard about the latest version that the makers of Counter-Strike are developing right now, which is Counter-Strike Global Offensive. I can already see the importance of your experience on playing Counter-Strike 1.3 on becoming good on that latest version; which can become handy especially now that on the tournaments of these stuff, you can get something over a million dollars as a prize.

So, let’s go into the heart of it: how to be good on counter-strike 1.3? Number 1, Brightness. Enemies are hard to see with the default brightness of the game. Meaning, if you are not the server of the game this is a necessity (this might seem unnecessary but trust me it is. It sounds senseless but it is not). So, to be able to do it, type “map de_dust” on the console. Wait for the console to take you to (guess where) de_dust. After, click ~, and type and enter on the console “brightness 999.” After that, enter “map de_dust” again. Wait until it gets you to de_dust again. Just now, it has the perfect brightness which will surely help you differentiate someone who is your enemy and friend on the game.

Number 2: Controls. Before even starting to play the game, go to the controls part. Click defaults. After that, change how you can buy with F1 instead of B; and how to buy bombs with F4 instead of M. For those of you who are curious, this would make you buy weapons, ammunition, and bombs faster which will make you more efficient on the game. Note, buy ammunitions with F1 + 6 and F1 + 7, instead of the alternative version. Trust me on this.

Number 3: Don’t be the server as much as possible. This is quite crucial. The most important reason why is that you would not be able to use technique number 1, which is the brightness part. There is simply no way of doing it. Plus, if you are playing in an internet cafe, which is what most likely is the case (because that is the easiest way to play it with other people; trust me), you cannot quit just anytime that you want because you would annoy other players. When you quit the game, other players will be disconnected to the game too. I would not worry so much on this certain technique, but I just thought you should know something about it.

Number 4: Weapon choice. Let’s face the elephant in the room. The only best weapon choice for the game is the sniper one. Pair it with pistol F1 + 1 and you have a perfect combo. The key here is practice. Train using the sniper one so that you kill enemies precisely as fast as possible and you would always be good to go. Plus, if you master using your pistol to kill enemies with headshots that would be a plus. Not that I am overselling, you can try other weapons but this would always be the perfect combo/one.
Number 5: Strategic positioning on the game. This is about where you go on the game (the path you choose). The trick here is choosing maximum efficiency. What I mean here is choose your position on the game so that you balance your safety and ability to kill enemies in the best way. Players on this game are very vulnerable. You can get killed in literally an instant. Protect yourself as much as possible without losing your ability to kill enemies. Since you already chose your perfect set of weapons, this would be like a walk in the park. With a sniper, choose a place where you can use it such that you are hidden but at the same time has the vision to hunt your preys.

Number 6: Map choice: you only have three options for this: cs_deathmatch, de_dust, de_dust2. Why? It is really tempting to say just because when you are already into the game, because it is just the way it is. However, for beginners out there, it is just the way it is because it would make the game fairer if you know what I mean. There is no special treatment and/or unfair advantage for either teams. Therefore, players equally enjoy the game (which is always a good thing).

Needless to say, it has a significant impact on my life. More than anything, it taught me how to be a team player and accept defeat graciously. It is a game where you can be yourself, make mistakes, get defeated or win with no pressure or someone judging you. Personally, it is a good environment to be in as a child. It might also added to my tech-savvyness. Despite it’s violent connotation, I disagree that it has negative impacts on anybody. So far, it didn’t lead me to be violent to other people. Contrary, it made me more compassionate, warm, and social.

I hope this helped you become better on Counter-Strike. Otherwise, if it made you curious about the game, great! Good luck playing it! I promise you it would be worth it. Try it as fast as possible now!

How I Made My Travel Certificates

Although my company is deeply involved in the design and sales of Travel Related Incentives and Rewards, first and foremost, we are a travel agency. Everything we do here is for the purpose of gaining access to travel customers.

Travel Agencies have been through some pretty big changes over the years starting with the airlines deciding that we didn’t deserve a commission for our services anymore. That sort of snowballed through many other travel service providers as the Internet opened up access to many of the same travel sources that we travel agencies used to call our own.

Today, instead of earning a commission by simply booking reservations for their clients, travel agencies must specialize in areas where they can guarantee travel service providers a large number of travelers. This allows the agency to negotiate rates below what is available to the consumer directly. So, the travel agency of this new era is now working for the travel services provider instead of the traveler. To make the new concept work, agencies are always looking for favorable pricing on the most desirable types of travel and then struggle to find the 1000’s of travelers they need so they can keep their contracts.

I developed my business model a number of years ago before the commission crunch began and unknowingly got a jump on the trend. I decided to try and market travel packages through the Human Resource departments of large companies. I put together cruise packages based on favorable rates I was getting from a few cruise lines sailing out of Florida. I offered these discount packages to employees as a company benefit. The companies loved it and were quite willing to put my flyers in their employee’s pay envelopes each week. That was almost 20 years ago and I still have a few companies that still use my original program today.

Getting really low rates on the most desirable types of travel is great but getting it for free is even better! While most agencies were desperately looking for more travelers, I knew if I could provide the travel services for little or nothing, this would never be a problem for me. I just had to figure out how I could get someone else to pay all or at least some of the travel expenses.

Living in Florida I watched as condominiums were being built one after the other from one coast to the other and all points in between. These were time share condo developments and they were some of the nicest resorts that Florida had to offer. They had a lot of empty suites week after week and they were looking for travelers too. I made a few calls and soon after I had arrangements with dozens of resorts that would give me access to their accommodations simply to have the opportunity to show my travelers around in hopes they would buy. All I needed now was a cost effective way to let people know what I had to offer.

It wasn’t just me that was looking for customers; everyone that was in any kind of business was looking for customers. I got together with a few marketing managers I knew and proposed that we work together. If they would cover the cost of the fees, I could give them a travel certificate that they could in turn give to their customers in reward for their business. It wasn’t long before I had several business owners who were promoting my travel packages by purchasing travel certificates from me and then giving them out to all their customers. It was the perfect idea: Travelers got to go to great places almost for free, my business associates got terrific sales incentives at a great price and I got plenty of travelers to fulfill my contracts with all my fees prepaid!

Since then I’ve design 100’s of travel certificate programs. The scope of each program is based primarily on the amount of money the business wants to pay per certificate towards the fees. The travelers makes up the difference but still has access to deeply discounted travel services that they would not be able to get elsewhere.

What Is Your Fashion Jewelry Style Personality?

We all have a certain personality that reflects our fashion style. It speaks volumes about us to people we don’t know. Read this to find out what is your fashion jewelry style personality

Classic

Tradition is an important part of your life. You are mostly around the age of 40. Your jewelry box has a few timeless classic pieces like a strand of pearls or a vintage brooch. You avoid prints and prefer solid colors like black, red and white. You wear your timeless classic style and not the other way round. You know when a drop of pearl earrings or a diamond bracelet is enough to reflect your personality. You prefer expensive items in your jewelry box that will last long and don’t throw them away till they are worn out. You are always confident that you will look good whatever the occasion even though you will not be the center of the crowd, something that you always avoid. That is the reason you like playing it safe with these timeless classic fashion jewelry pieces.

Romantic

Femininity oozes from your style. You are hopeless romantic who is in love with the past. You wish you were born in the Victorian era and fallen in love in that time period. Your jewelry box is full of girlie, pretty and delicate pieces. Floral motifs, butterflies, symbols of love like the heart are your favorite designs. You love wearing, looking at and surrounding yourself with pretty things. Romantic fashion jewelry personalities love pastels to create a soft and dreamy look.

Trendy

You are the Queen Bee of the social circle, the party princess and the darling of all. Your fashion style is dictated by the latest trends in fashion magazines and celebrity styles. You cannot be seen wearing the same outfit among the same crowd twice; in short you are a true fashionista. You are willing to break your budget to get your hands on the latest trend in fashion jewelry. You are most likely to be under 40 and love to buy all things designer to flaunt “what’s in” among your subjects, because you are the princess.

Free Spirit

You march to the beat of your own drum. You find beauty in unique things and follow your heart to express your style. You create a trend which nobody else can wear except you. You have a penchant for all things natural which makes you feel close to nature. Bohemian style reflects your personality. You look gorgeous with just one unique jewelry piece. Your laid back style comes effortlessly to you. Floral designs and symbols like birds depict free spirit are your favorites in your in jewelry box. When you buy fashion jewelry it is important to you that the jewelry piece is unique and speaks to your heart. Often your jewelry pieces are not expensive but they reflect your free spirit personality.

Base Tendriling Travel Expenses

As business travel expenses nose upward, companies are realizing that better cost-management techniques can make a difference

US. corporate travel expenses rocketed to more than $143 billion in 1994, according to American Express’ most recent survey on business travel management. Private-sector employers spend an estimated $2,484 per employee on travel and entertainment, a 17 percent increase over the past four years.

Corporate T&E costs, now the third-largest controllable expense behind sales and data-processing costs, are under new scrutiny. Corporations are realizing that even a savings of 1 percent or 2 percent can translate into millions of dollars added to their bottom line.

Savings of that order are sure to get management’s attention, which is a requirement for this type of project. Involvement begins with understanding and evaluating the components of T&E management in order to control and monitor it more effectively.

Hands-on management includes assigning responsibility for travel management, implementing a quality-measurement system for travel services used, and writing and distributing a formal travel policy. Only 64 percent of U.S. corporations have travel policies.

Even with senior management’s support, the road to savings is rocky-only one in three companies has successfully instituted an internal program that will help cut travel expenses, and the myriad aspects of travel are so overwhelming, most companies don’t know where to start. “The industry of travel is based on information,” says Steven R. Schoen, founder and CEO of The Global Group Inc. “Until such time as a passenger actually sets foot on the plane, they’ve [only] been purchasing information.”

If that’s the case, information technology seems a viable place to hammer out those elusive, but highly sought-after, savings. “Technological innovations in the business travel industry are allowing firms to realize the potential of automation to control and reduce indirect [travel] costs,” says Roger H. Ballou, president of the Travel Services Group USA of American Express. “In addition, many companies are embarking on quality programs that include sophisticated process improvement and re-engineering efforts designed to substantially improve T&E management processes and reduce indirect costs.”

As companies look to technology to make potential savings a reality, they can get very creative about the methods they employ.

The Great Leveler

Centralized reservation systems were long the exclusive domain of travel agents and other industry professionals. But all that changed in November 1992 when a Department of Transportation ruling allowed the general public access to systems such as Apollo and SABRE. Travel-management software, such as TripPower and TravelNet, immediately sprang up, providing corporations insight into where their T&E dollars are being spent.

The software tracks spending trends by interfacing with the corporation’s database and providing access to centralized reservation systems that provide immediate reservation information to airlines, hotels and car rental agencies. These programs also allow users to generate computerized travel reports on cost savings with details on where discounts were obtained, hotel and car usage and patterns of travel between cities. Actual data gives corporations added leverage when negotiating discounts with travel suppliers.

“When you own the information, you don’t have to go back to square one every time you decide to change agencies,” says Mary Savovie Stephens, travel manager for biotech giant Chiron Corp.

Sybase Inc., a client/server software leader with an annual T&E budget of more than $15 million, agrees. “Software gives us unprecedented visibility into how employees are spending their travel dollars and better leverage to negotiate with travel service suppliers,” says Robert Lerner, director of credit and corporate travel services for Sybase Inc. “We have better access to data, faster, in a real-time environment, which is expected to bring us big savings in T&E. Now we have control over our travel information and no longer have to depend exclusively on the agencies and airlines.”

The cost for this privilege depends on the volume of business. One-time purchases of travel-management software can run from under $100 to more than $125,000. Some software providers will accommodate smaller users by selling software piecemeal for $5 to $12 per booked trip, still a significant savings from the $50 industry norm per transaction.

No More Tickets

Paperless travel is catching on faster than the paperless office ever did as both service providers and consumers work together to reduce ticket prices for business travelers. Perhaps the most cutting-edge of the advances is “ticket-less” travel, which almost all major airlines are testing.

In the meantime, travel providers and agencies are experimenting with new technologies to enable travelers to book travel services via the Internet, e-mail and unattended ticketing kiosks. Best Western International, Hyatt Hotels and several other major hotel chains market on the Internet. These services reduce the need for paper and offer better service and such peripheral benefits as increased efficiency, improved tracking of travel expenses and trends, and cost reduction.

Dennis Egolf, CFO of the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Louisville, Ky., realized that the medical center’s decentralized location, a quarter-mile from the hospital, made efficiency difficult. “We were losing production time and things got lost,” he says. “Every memo had to be hand-carried for approval, and we required seven different copies of each travel order.” As a result, Egolf tried an off-the-shelf, paper-reduction software package designed for the federal government.

The software allows the hospital to manage travel on-line, from tracking per-diem allowances and calculating expenses to generating cash advance forms and authorizing reimbursement vouchers. The software also lets the hospital keep a running account of its travel expenses and its remaining travel budget.

“Today, for all practical purposes, the system is paperless,” says Egolf. The software has helped the hospital reduce document processing time by 93 percent. “The original goal focused on managing employee travel without paper,” he says. “We have achieved that goal, in part due to the efforts of the staff and in part due to the accuracy of the software.”

With only a $6,000 investment, the hospital saved $70 each employee trip and saved almost half of its $200,000 T&E budget through the paper-reduction program.

Out There

Consolidation of corporate travel arrangements by fewer agencies has been a growing trend since 1982. Nearly three out of four companies now make travel plans for their business locations through a single agency as opposed to 51 percent in 1988. Two major benefits of agency consolidation are the facilitation of accounting and T&E budgeting, as well as leverage in negotiating future travel discounts.

A major technological advance that allows this consolidation trend to flourish is the introduction of satellite ticket printers (STPs). Using STPs enables a travel agency to consolidate all operations to one home office, and still send all necessary tickets to various locations instantly via various wire services. As the term implies, the machinery prints out airline tickets on-site immediately, eliminating delivery charges.

For London Fog, STPs are a blessing. London Fog’s annual T&E budget of more than $15 million is split equally between its two locations in Eldersburg, Md., and New York City. Each location purchases the same number of tickets, so equal access to ticketing from their agency is a must. With an STP in their two locations, the company services both offices with one agency in Baltimore. Each office has access to immediate tickets and still manages to save by not having to pay courier and express mail charges that can range up to $15 for each of the more than 500 tickets each purchases annually.

Conde Nast Publications’ annual T&E budget of more than $20 million is allocated among its locations in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago, New York and Detroit. Since 1994, travel arrangements have been handled by a centralized agency, Advanced Travel Management in New York City, by installing an STP in each of these five locations. In addition to increased efficiency due to consolidation, Conde Nast now has the ability to change travel plans at a moment’s notice and have new tickets in hand instantly.

The real benefit is that the machines are owned and maintained by the travel agency., so there is no cost to the company. Due to the major expense involved, however, STPs remain an option only for major ticket purchasers. “STPs are a viable option in this process for any location that purchases more than $500,000 per year in tickets,” says Shoen.

As airfare averages 43 percent of any company’s T&E expenses, savings obtainable through the various uses of technology have become dramatic. For example, the ability of corporations to collect and analyze their own travel trends has led to the creation of net-fare purchasing-negotiating a price between a corporation and an airline to purchase tickets that does not include the added expenses of commissions, overrides, transaction fees, agency transaction fees and other discounts.

Although most major U.S. carriers publicly proclaim that they don’t negotiate corporate discounts below published market fares, the American Express survey on business travel management found that 38 percent of U.S. companies had access to, or already had implemented, negotiated airline discounts. The availability and mechanics of these arrangements vary widely by carrier.

What’s the Price?

Fred Swaffer, transportation manager for Hewlett-Packard and a strong advocate of the net-pricing system, has pioneered the concept of fee-based pricing with travel-management companies under contract with H-P. He states that H-P, which spends more than $528 million per year on T&E, plans to have all air travel based on net-fare pricing. “At the present time, we have several net fares at various stages of agreement,” he says. “These fares are negotiated with the airlines at the corporate level, then trickle down to each of our seven geographical regions.”

Frank Kent, Western regional manager for United Airlines, concurs: “United Airlines participates in corporate volume discounting, such as bulk ticket purchases, but not with net pricing. I have yet to see one net-fare agreement that makes sense to us. We’re not opposed to it, but we just don’t understand it right now.”

Kent stresses, “Airlines should approach corporations with long-term strategic relationships rather than just discounts. We would like to see ourselves committed to a corporation rather than just involved.”

As business travel expenses nose upward, companies are realizing that better cost-management techniques can make a difference.

US. corporate travel expenses rocketed to more than $143 billion in 1994, according to American Express’ most recent survey on business travel management. Private-sector employers spend an estimated $2,484 per employee on travel and entertainment, a 17 percent increase over the past four years.

Corporate T&E costs, now the third-largest controllable expense behind sales and data-processing costs, are under new scrutiny. Corporations are realizing that even a savings of 1 percent or 2 percent can translate into millions of dollars added to their bottom line.

Savings of that order are sure to get management’s attention, which is a requirement for this type of project. Involvement begins with understanding and evaluating the components of T&E management in order to control and monitor it more effectively.

Hands-on management includes assigning responsibility for travel management, implementing a quality-measurement system for travel services used, and writing and distributing a formal travel policy. Only 64 percent of U.S. corporations have travel policies.

Even with senior management’s support, the road to savings is rocky-only one in three companies has successfully instituted an internal program that will help cut travel expenses, and the myriad aspects of travel are so overwhelming, most companies don’t know where to start. “The industry of travel is based on information,” says Steven R. Schoen, founder and CEO of The Global Group Inc. “Until such time as a passenger actually sets foot on the plane, they’ve [only] been purchasing information.”

If that’s the case, information technology seems a viable place to hammer out those elusive, but highly sought-after, savings. “Technological innovations in the business travel industry are allowing firms to realize the potential of automation to control and reduce indirect [travel] costs,” says Roger H. Ballou, president of the Travel Services Group USA of American Express. “In addition, many companies are embarking on quality programs that include sophisticated process improvement and re-engineering efforts designed to substantially improve T&E management processes and reduce indirect costs.”

As companies look to technology to make potential savings a reality, they can get very creative about the methods they employ.

The Great Leveler

Centralized reservation systems were long the exclusive domain of travel agents and other industry professionals. But all that changed in November 1992 when a Department of Transportation ruling allowed the general public access to systems such as Apollo and SABRE. Travel-management software, such as TripPower and TravelNet, immediately sprang up, providing corporations insight into where their T&E dollars are being spent.

The software tracks spending trends by interfacing with the corporation’s database and providing access to centralized reservation systems that provide immediate reservation information to airlines, hotels and car rental agencies. These programs also allow users to generate computerized travel reports on cost savings with details on where discounts were obtained, hotel and car usage and patterns of travel between cities. Actual data gives corporations added leverage when negotiating discounts with travel suppliers.

“When you own the information, you don’t have to go back to square one every time you decide to change agencies,” says Mary Savovie Stephens, travel manager for biotech giant Chiron Corp.

Sybase Inc., a client/server software leader with an annual T&E budget of more than $15 million, agrees. “Software gives us unprecedented visibility into how employees are spending their travel dollars and better leverage to negotiate with travel service suppliers,” says Robert Lerner, director of credit and corporate travel services for Sybase Inc. “We have better access to data, faster, in a real-time environment, which is expected to bring us big savings in T&E. Now we have control over our travel information and no longer have to depend exclusively on the agencies and airlines.”

The cost for this privilege depends on the volume of business. One-time purchases of travel-management software can run from under $100 to more than $125,000. Some software providers will accommodate smaller users by selling software piecemeal for $5 to $12 per booked trip, still a significant savings from the $50 industry norm per transaction.

No More Tickets

Paperless travel is catching on faster than the paperless office ever did as both service providers and consumers work together to reduce ticket prices for business travelers. Perhaps the most cutting-edge of the advances is “ticketless” travel, which almost all major airlines are testing.

In the meantime, travel providers and agencies are experimenting with new technologies to enable travelers to book travel services via the Internet, e-mail and unattended ticketing kiosks. Best Western International, Hyatt Hotels and several other major hotel chains market on the Internet. These services reduce the need for paper and offer better service and such peripheral benefits as increased efficiency, improved tracking of travel expenses and trends, and cost reduction.

Dennis Egolf, CFO of the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Louisville, Ky., realized that the medical center’s decentralized location, a quarter-mile from the hospital, made efficiency difficult. “We were losing production time and things got lost,” he says. “Every memo had to be hand-carried for approval, and we required seven different copies of each travel order.” As a result, Egolf tried an off-the-shelf, paper-reduction software package designed for the federal government.

The software allows the hospital to manage travel on-line, from tracking per-diem allowances and calculating expenses to generating cash advance forms and authorizing reimbursement vouchers. The software also lets the hospital keep a running account of its travel expenses and its remaining travel budget.

“Today, for all practical purposes, the system is paperless,” says Egolf. The software has helped the hospital reduce document processing time by 93 percent. “The original goal focused on managing employee travel without paper,” he says. “We have achieved that goal, in part due to the efforts of the staff and in part due to the accuracy of the software.”

With only a $6,000 investment, the hospital saved $70 each employee trip and saved almost half of its $200,000 T&E budget through the paper-reduction program.

Out There

Consolidation of corporate travel arrangements by fewer agencies has been a growing trend since 1982. Nearly three out of four companies now make travel plans for their business locations through a single agency as opposed to 51 percent in 1988. Two major benefits of agency consolidation are the facilitation of accounting and T&E budgeting, as well as leverage in negotiating future travel discounts.

A major technological advance that allows this consolidation trend to flourish is the introduction of satellite ticket printers (STPs). Using STPs enables a travel agency to consolidate all operations to one home office, and still send all necessary tickets to various locations instantly via various wire services. As the term implies, the machinery prints out airline tickets on-site immediately, eliminating delivery charges.

For London Fog, STPs are a blessing. London Fog’s annual T&E budget of more than $15 million is split equally between its two locations in Eldersburg, Md., and New York City. Each location purchases the same number of tickets, so equal access to ticketing from their agency is a must. With an STP in their two locations, the company services both offices with one agency in Baltimore. Each office has access to immediate tickets and still manages to save by not having to pay courier and express mail charges that can range up to $15 for each of the more than 500 tickets each purchases annually.

Conde Nast Publications’ annual T&E budget of more than $20 million is allocated among its locations in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago, New York and Detroit. Since 1994, travel arrangements have been handled by a centralized agency, Advanced Travel Management in New York City, by installing an STP in each of these five locations. In addition to increased efficiency due to consolidation, Conde Nast now has the ability to change travel plans at a moment’s notice and have new tickets in hand instantly.

The real benefit is that the machines are owned and maintained by the travel agency., so there is no cost to the company. Due to the major expense involved, however, STPs remain an option only for major ticket purchasers. “STPs are a viable option in this process for any location that purchases more than $500,000 per year in tickets,” says Shoen.

As airfare averages 43 percent of any company’s T&E expenses, savings obtainable through the various uses of technology have become dramatic. For example, the ability of corporations to collect and analyze their own travel trends has led to the creation of net-fare purchasing-negotiating a price between a corporation and an airline to purchase tickets that does not include the added expenses of commissions, overrides, transaction fees, agency transaction fees and other discounts.

Although most major U.S. carriers publicly proclaim that they don’t negotiate corporate discounts below published market fares, the American Express survey on business travel management found that 38 percent of U.S. companies had access to, or already had implemented, negotiated airline discounts. The availability and mechanics of these arrangements vary widely by carrier.

What’s the Price?

Fred Swaffer, transportation manager for Hewlett-Packard and a strong advocate of the net-pricing system, has pioneered the concept of fee-based pricing with travel-management companies under contract with H-P. He states that H-P, which spends more than $528 million per year on T&E, plans to have all air travel based on net-fare pricing. “At the present time, we have several net fares at various stages of agreement,” he says. “These fares are negotiated with the airlines at the corporate level, then trickle down to each of our seven geographical regions.”

Frank Kent, Western regional manager for United Airlines, concurs: “United Airlines participates in corporate volume discounting, such as bulk ticket purchases, but not with net pricing. I have yet to see one net-fare agreement that makes sense to us. We’re not opposed to it, but we just don’t understand it right now.”

Kent stresses, “Airlines should approach corporations with long-term strategic relationships rather than just discounts. We would like to see ourselves committed to a corporation rather than just involved.”

How Goods Transportation Has Evolved Over the Years

From ancient times goods have been transported from the countryside to big cities and towns and vice versa. Goods also have been traded with neighboring and distant countries. The best example is the ancient Silk Route. The Silk route made use of different modes of transportation according to the region. While in some places camels were used to transport goods in the form of caravans, in coastal areas ships were the preferred mode of transportation.

Goods transportation, a boost to the global economy

Transportation of goods is a broad term which includes several kinds of activities and modes of transportation. Moving raw materials from mines or forest areas to factories, transporting the finished goods to markets, distribution of goods to various consumer centers worldwide are just some of the activities that come under the category.

Another example that can be stated is that of agricultural produce transported to a food processing unit. The processed goods are then stored in a warehouse to be transported to distribution centers.

The mode of transport used in this process would vary widely according to the volume of goods to be moved, the urgency and the geographical topography of the region. Today goods are transported using various modes of transport giving rise to transport corridors. Transport corridors along with favorable customs and tariff duties have boosted trade in different parts of the world.

Efficient transportation of goods is based upon

  • The Infrastructure
  • Vehicles or mode of transportation
  • Operations and administration
  • Energy or fuel supply and consumption

The different modes for goods transportation

Roadways

Road Transportation (Roadways) is the oldest means of transport used for moving goods. Whether in the form of caravan trails or paved paths, roads have been used extensively in the past. The automobile revolutionized road transport and today freight trucks, wagons and trailers carry large volumes of goods across highways.

Also with improved methods of lying roads using material like concrete and tarmac, roads are now much more durable. Further advances in civil engineering have meant that bridges can be built across water bodies facilitating movement of goods across regions separated by rivers.

Marine transportation

Maritime transportation has always been an important mode to transport goods across countries and continents. Consuming less energy as compared to roadways or rail, cargo ships can carry thousands of tons of freight in a single trip from one port to another.

With the advent of containerization, goods can now be easily transported using ships which can be unloaded at ports and then transported via rail to inland markets.

Railways

After the Industrial Revolution, rail transport began to be extensively used for moving goods. Rail technology has improved considerably over the years. Today diesel-electric locomotives haul large quantities of freight in most parts of the world.

High speed rail transport has proved to be efficient in transporting goods over large distances in countries like the United States, Russia and China and in Europe.

Airways

The use of aircraft in transporting cargo has generally been limited to areas where urgency is the primary need. Large airfreight carriers like the Boeing 707 and 727 can transport significant amounts of cargo at a time.

However the cost of transportation and limitation in the volume of goods that can be transferred at a time has prevented large scale use of aircraft in goods movement.

Planning is crucial

While Goods Movement, Transportation has an obvious impact on the economic sphere it also has a visible effect on the environment. Planning is vital to manage the various factors involved. A well planned transport system would make optimum use of available facilities and ensure a streamlined and Eco-friendly transportation process at lesser costs.

Beach Wedding Flowers for the Bouquet

To make a beach wedding perfect you need to have the right wedding flowers for your bouquet. It is important that you have the flowers put together to make the most of their colors along with complementing the wedding theme and colors. There are any different tropical flowers that you can mix and match for your wedding flowers. Tropical flowers have vibrant colors that will not clash with each other and you can even have different colors of the same flower.

White rose’s combination

When you are arranging the bouquet make sure that you have an even set of six wedding flowers placed together in your bouquet. A beautiful combination is medium-sized white roses mixed with roses that compliment your wedding theme. This bouquet will give you a strong yet subtle array of colors. To hold the base of the flowers intact, use a golden mesh type material. Tie it with a ribbon that compliments your wedding theme. Throw some sprinkled shine on the bouquet to have a beautiful rose bouquet.

Orchids

This flower offers a variety of colors like blue, violet, wand white. They would look great as wedding flowers in your bouquet. Again, use white and the color that complements your wedding decor. You could use a few white orchids mixed with two of the colors in your wedding colors. With these being wedding flowers for your beach wedding, add some seashell highlights glued to your bouquet ribbon that is holding the flowers together. You can also use small teardrop that you can stick on some of the petal to make it look like water droplets on the petals.

Bird of Paradise

These wedding flowers burst with colors of bright blue and orange. If you are having a morning wedding these will look spectacular in the sunlight. The sunlight appears to make the color pop and is a simple arrangement to put together. To wrap the bottom of the flowers use a bejeweled mesh.

Dahlias

These wedding flowers are the personification of class, style, and elegance. Using Dahlias will make your bouquet one of a kind. These flowers come in a variety of colors such as yellow, pink, red, white, lavender, orange, and bi-colors. They range in size from two inches to one foot in diameter.

These are just some of the different wedding flowers that you can use in your bouquet. When you choose flowers make sure that they will not easily wilt in the sun because nothing looks worse than a bouquet of wilting wedding flowers. You will also need to decide if you want flowers that do or do not have a scent. It may help to have a drawing of what you want your bouquet to look like when choosing wedding flowers.

Womens Jewelry Vs Mens Jewelry

Talk of jewelry and we instantly think of women. It is but true that jewelry to a great extent is considered the forte of women alone and in spite of the fact that men’s jewelry has always existed right from the time that the jewelry was first invented and crafted centuries ago we still continue to link jewelry with women. However let us not ignore the fact that not only has men’s jewelry been in existence for a long time now but has also reinvented and become an integral part of a man’s ensemble these days. One thing is for certain, that jewelry for women and jewelry for women are as far apart as can possibly be.

The most basic difference between jewelry for women from that of men is the look. The appearances of the two are poles apart. Where on one hand jewelry for women are pretty and feminine the men’s version of the same have a more somber look and are definitely without any frills.

Although these days with men’s clothes and jewelry both witnessing reinvention keeping in mind the changing preference and taste of the modern man, jewelry for men is also catching up with the elaborate and ornate look which was earlier meant for the women alone.

Another very stark difference between jewelry for women from that of men is the variety and options that are available. Not only are the categories of jewelry limited for men, they are also available in far fewer designs as compared to that of women. For example where a woman can choose from rings, earrings, pendants, necklaces, brooches, hair accessories, charms and bracelets to name a few, men have only their staple dose of rings, cufflinks and bracelets to resort to.

Also, the designs between jewelry for men and that of women also vary a great deal in the craftsmanship and the use of diamonds or gemstones. Talking of gemstones, the vibrant and colorful specks can be amply used in jewelry for women but they are quite sparingly used in jewelry for men. In fact the entire look has to suit the different personalities that men and women respectively possess.

But one thing is for certain whether it is jewelry for men or for women, they are extremely sought after for the wonderful way in which they add their color and sparkle, amply in case of women and subtly in case of men.

Consider Purchasing An Entertainment Wall Unit – You Are Not In College Any Longer

If you know of a college student, then swing by their apartment and take a look at the furniture in the room. I am sure that you will find pieces that do not match, pieces that have one or more food stains and pieces that look like they were left on the curb for the last garbage pick-up. So answer this question – does your living room furniture look like you are still in college? If your TV and DVD player are still sitting on upside down milk crates, then it may be time to start shopping for a real entertainment wall unit.

Your situation may not be as extreme as previously mentioned, but if you are out of college or just working full time, then you really have no excuses for beat up old furniture. Think about it, the way your home looks reflects the kind of person you are. Do you want people really thinking that your idea of a TV wall unit are milk crates and a board you nailed into the wall?

Now, before you jump online or run to your nearest furniture shop you should take a few things into consideration. After all this is a pretty big purchase and not something that you will want to take lightly. An entertainment wall unit should not only be physically appealing, it needs to be structurally sound as well. The last thing that you want is to have that nice TV come crashing down because of shoddy workmanship.

If you have a lot of heavy things you plan on placing in your new entertainment wall system, then you probably want to steer clear of any flimsy material like particle board being held up by a few nails or screws. If you have such things as a big screen TV or stereo receiver complete with a surround sound speaker system, then take a look at the material that the unit you are considering buying is made out of. Go through the product to see how it is constructed and how it is rated quality wise. Is it real wood or is it cheap particle board? What materials are being used to hold all of the pieces together?

Nothing would ruin a nice night watching DVDs than to have your large TV bend and break the shelf that it is on. While the material used in making TV wall units is of great concern, you should also look at what you plan on placing in it and on it. Does the color of your TV and other electronic items match? Are they too large and heavy for your entertainment wall system? Is there a chance that it may bend and break?

Ask yourself these questions before making the leap to buy an entertainment wall unit. Don’t take any chances that you next big purchase will end up costing you even more should it collapse and cause your precious electronics to fall and break.

Drug Abuse Addiction: A Misunderstood Problem

Too often people don’t truly comprehend the real reason why a person develops a drug abuse addiction or how drugs can alter their brain to stimulate compulsive drug abuse and addiction. They wrongly perceive this problem as something that is surely a social problem only and may discriminate those who abuse drugs as morally powerless. A persistent and general belief is that addicted individuals should be fully capable of just quitting drugs as long as they are willing to alter their attitude and behavior. Again and again, what people often simply and underestimate is the complication of drug addiction. It is a serious disease that impacts the very brain itself and as a result, ceasing drug abuse and drug addiction is not plainly a matter of an individuals’ willpower. Through current scientific advances we are now able to understand much more in regards to how precisely drugs affect the brain. Furthermore, we now know that drug abuse addiction can be successfully treated to assist individuals’ in stopping the abuse of drugs and carry on their normal lives.

Drug abuse and addiction can be a huge burden on society. There have been approximate estimates of the overall costs of this issue in the USA alone, which includes health costs as well as losses in productivity, to surpass 500 billion dollars annually. As distressing as these figures are, they don’t adequately and fully convey the breadth of detrimental public health and safety implications, which involve domestic violence, school failure, family disruption, loss of employment, child abuse, and many other types of deviant crimes.

To truly understand what drug abuse and drug addiction is, we need to know that it is a continuous, relapsing brain disease that induces uncontrollable drug seeking and use and abuse in spite of harmful and damaging consequences to the abuser who is addicted and to all those who are close to them. Drug abuse and addiction is defined as a brain disease for the reason that this problem advances changes in the function and also the structure of the brain. Even though it is undeniable that for most addicts the initial decision to take drugs is purely voluntary, over the course of time the alterations in the brain, as a result of abusing drugs over and over again, can greatly affect an individual’s self control and capability to make logical decisions, while at the exact same moment send extreme impulses to take more the addictive substance.

It is these very extreme changes in the brain that makes it so difficult for an individual who is addicted to absolutely cease from abusing drugs. Fortunately, there are existing treatments that assist people to neutralize drug addiction’s strong damaging effects so that the individual can recapture some semblance of self control. Studies have shown that incorporating drug abuse addiction treatment medications along with behavioral therapy is one of the most successful ways for majority of patients. When a treatment method is customized to each patient’s patterns along with psychiatric aid can lead to long term continuous recovery and a life without the need for further intervention.

Very much like other chronic or relapsing diseases such as heart disease or diabetes, drug abuse addiction can be managed quite successfully. Additional, it’s not unusual for a drug abuse and addiction person to backslide and start abusing drugs again. We must be clear that relapse does not indicate failure, rather, it demonstrates that proper drug abuse and drug addiction treatment should be reintroduced, modified, or that other forms of drug abuse addiction treatment is required to help the individual retake self control and recover.

Create Your Own Fashion Style 101

Fashion is a funny thing. Many people strive to be as fashionable as possible and they only wear the hottest new designers and that season’s “in” color. The point of fashion is to stand out and make yourself look unique and original. However, when everyone sees that runway show and then shows up at the city’s hottest night clubs in the signature outfit of a particular line, the worst situation happens. Everyone ends up looking the same! As hard as it is to believe, every piece of clothing, whether made by a top designer or a no-name company, is influenced by that season’s latest fashion trends. It is boring to look like everyone else, however. It is much more exciting to put together your own outfits and create a statement of your own.

You might be wondering how you can be original if every piece of clothing that is manufactured has somehow been influenced by fashion trends. One option is to make your own clothing! Many people enjoy working with patterns and a sewing machine. It can be quite fun especially because you can experiment with different types of fabric and cuts. When you are ready to model one of your latest dresses, throw on a pair of oversized sunglasses and your design will be an instant hit.

If you are not someone who is skilled with a thread and needle or you simply do not have time to spend on making your own clothing, then you just need to get creative with the items that are out there. Layering and mixing and matching are just two of the many ways you can spice up your everyday look. Since you are already familiar with the types of outfits that are popular already, you can try changing them up by using different accent pieces, such as a bold necklace or eye-catching belt.

You should also try shopping at boutiques or resale stores. You never know what great pieces of clothing you can find and, most of the time, you can alter these pieces very easily. Since the price is never too high, you have no qualms about altering it to make it your own! Every piece you come up with will always look great with oversized sunglasses. This extra accessory just makes your unique designs stand out more and you will establish yourself as a trendsetter in no time!